So, let's say you just installed SharePoint 2013* and elected to go the route of using psconfig to create/provision the configuration database and Central Admin app. Upon launching Central Admin you find that you can't install any services. If you launch the configuration wizard the only service available is health and usage, if you go to Manage Service Applications then nothing happens when you click the new button in the upper left. When you go to Manage Services On Server you'll find six or seven services but not search services.
It turns out you'll need to run a couple more commands if you elect to strictly go the psconfig route:
psconfig -cmd services -install
psconfig -cmd services -provision
After running these commands you should be able to install search services, as well as any other services you're looking for.
UPDATE: You'll also need to install features using:
psconfig -cmd installfeatures
* And, let's say, if you didn't then just skip the rest of this post.